WIESBADEN – During the last week of April 2019 and the first week of May 2019, about 1,600 Russian Avant-Garde works of art were returned to their owners. This was in accord with the ruling of the Wiesbaden Landesgericht court in March 2018, the delay caused by administrative details and certain unresolved issues.

The March 2018 ruling stated that the court had found no “ring of forgers”, as claimed by the German police, the BKA, in their Press Release of 13 June 2013 following the seizure of the some 1,600 works and their related documents. The prosecution had failed to prove their case, and the tiger had turned into a mouse.

The painters whose work was returned include the best of the Russian Avant-Garde – Kazimir Malevich, Vasily Kandinsky, Olga Rozanova, Ivan Kliun, Marc Chagall, Alexandra Exter, El Lissitzky, Aleksandr Rodchenko, and many lesser known artists. Together these works provide a wide historical picture of the Russian Avant-Garde which we have from nowhere else.

It is with great joy that these works, and their painters, can now enter, again, the world of art history – of museums, art historians and scientific experts. One can only look forward to exhibitions of works from these collections so that their importance, innovation and beauty can be seen and appreciated by the public.

Admin. 28 May 2019

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Statement of the 2018 Annual Conference of CIMAM

International Committee for Museums and Collections of Modern Art

Stockholm, 2-4 November.

  • Catherine de Zegher, Fake Art or Fake News?
  • Open Letter and Signatories 10 & 15 October 2018

In the wake of allegations about paintings from the Russian Avant-Garde collection of Igor and Olga Toporovski exhibited at the Museum of Fine Arts in Ghent from October 2017 to January 2018, there has been considerable support for the director, Catherine de Zegher, from the museum world. An Open Letter was published on 9 October 2018 signed by 66 museum directors and curators as well as artists. This is now followed by a Statement from the 2018 Annual Conference of CIMAM, International Committee for Museums and Collections of Modern Art, held in Stockholm, 2-4 November. It is published here, followed by the Editorial of Catherine de Zegher, Fake Art or Fake News?


10 October 2018

About 7 months ago, we learned through the press that Catherine de Zegher had been temporarily suspended as Director of the Museum of Fine Arts of Ghent (MSK). It followed a 7 weeks media campaign of allegations made against the museum and its presentation within the permanent collection of the Russian avant-garde art from the Dieleghem Foundation, based in Brussels. The media allegations had risen to a crescendo, with the most extravagant claims being made, claims, which on examination appeared to have no factual basis and no discernible verifiable evidence. Malign motives were imputed to all those involved with the exhibition. In particular the personal attacks against Catherine de Zegher reached a peculiar and unprecedented intensity that resulted in a trial by media. Under pressure of the escalating and widespread attacks the city of Ghent caved in and temporarily suspended Catherine de Zegher.

Today, October 10, 2018, most obviously Catherine de Zegher’s position as “temporally suspended museum director” has not been clarified, and no additional scientific research or independent material-technical expertise have been initiated by municipal, regional, or national government authorities in Belgium to settle the authenticity of the Russian avant-garde works exhibited at the MSK. As a consequence, the mendacious allegations against her are kept alive and the situation seems to be lingering without solution in sight.

The scope of allegations and measures of isolation of a director and curator internationally recognized for her artistic vision, her championing of art by women and art from diverse cultures, her broad knowledge and expertise, her ceaseless curiosity, the relevance of her museum programming and the quality of her widely influential exhibitions and many books, stupefy us.

Just before the local and international press attack, Catherine de Zegher successfully accomplished the complete reinstallation of the Ghent Museum of Fine Arts. Behind the concept ‘From Bosch to Tuymans’, under her direction, the MSK had reinstalled some 600 works from its collection together with loans from private collections, and integrating contemporary projects in a dialogue with the historical works. This reinstallation had been and still is enthusiastically applauded by the international museum world.

Over a period of 5 years (2013-2018), Catherine de Zegher has given a totally new impetus to the Museum of Fine Arts in Ghent, developing a unique and historically significant perspective with exhibitions including the work of lesser known artists and many women artists as well as exhibitions of artists and movements within the MSK expertise area of art from the 19th and 20th century and from its collection. She was working on more exhibitions of artists never shown in Belgium, such as Medardo Rosso and the upcoming Baroque exhibition around Artemisia Gentileschi, as well as preparing the international monograph exhibition of the Flemish master Jan van Eyck for 2020. Catherine de Zegher was one of the very few art professionals in a senior position in a Flemish art museum to have had an international career across 4 continents and to have brought artists whose work and ideas would otherwise have been lost to a wide and appreciative audience.

Catherine de Zegher has a long and illustrious career as director and curator of groundbreaking exhibitions and author of acclaimed publications, such as America: Bride of the Sun. 500 Years of Latin America and the Low Countries (1992) at the Royal Museum of Fine Art, Antwerp, and Inside the Visible. An Elliptical Traverse of Twentieth-Century Art in, of, and from the Feminine (1994-1996) at the Institute of Contemporary Art in Boston. She was the Artistic Director of the 5th Moscow Biennale (2013) and of the 18th Biennale of Sydney (2012). She curated On Line. Drawing Through the Twentieth Century (2010-2011) at the Museum of Modern Art, New York, and was the Director of Exhibitions and Publications at the Art Gallery of Ontario in Toronto. Previous to this position, from 1999-2006, she was for many years the Executive Director and Chief Curator of The Drawing Center in New York. Over the years, she has received Best Show awards from AICA and AAMC and became a member of the Royal Academy of Belgium for Science and the Arts.

We are art professionals, academics and artists. We love art, museums and audiences. To promote art as joy, energy, and source of imagination and as critical reflection on the past and the present, and to interact and relate with wide audiences is, in our eyes, an essential concern for society at large. We are appalled to see how one of the preeminent women curators of her generation internationally, a wholly professional and widely acclaimed museum director, has been made the plaything of unscrupulous media and of international speculation in the art of the Russian avant- garde, resulting in a severe media process destroying her work and reputation. Through this letter, we affirm our full support for Catherine de Zegher as museum director and as curator. We challenge the local and national authorities concerned on the important issue of having, keeping, protecting and supporting visionary museum directors in their country, remaining independent in their judgement from the pressure media exert and the correlated hype and sensation, and above all from the growing influence of a certain art market linked with finance and power. We ask them to seriously pay attention to the role art and museums play in our cities, regions and in the society at large, the great principles they represent, and the necessity of having inspirational museum directors and curators to lead the way.

Eija-Liisa Ahtila, Artist, Finland
Yves Aupetitallot, Former Director Le Magasin, Grenoble
Manuel Borja, Director & Art Historian, Madrid
Sigrid Bousset, Curator Literature, Belgium
Benjamin Buchloh, Andrew W. Mellon Professor of Modern Art, Harvard University, USA
Laurent Busine, Former Director MAC’s – Le Musée des Arts Contemporains – Site du Grand-Hornu, Belgium
Luis Camnitzer, Artist, Uruguay/USA
Piet Coessens, Director Roger Raveel Museum, Machelen-aan-de Leie, Belgium
Beatriz Colomina, Professor of Architecture and Director of Graduate Studies in the School of Architecture, Founding Director of the interdisciplinary Media and Modernity Program, Princeton University, USA
Suzanne Cotter, Director Mudam, Musée d’Art Moderne Grand-Duc Jean, Luxemburg
Catherine David, Deputy Director, National Museum of Modern Art, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris
Joost De Clercq, Director Museum Dhondt-Dhaenens, Deurle, Belgium
Edith Dekyndt, Artist, Brussels
Sebastien Delot, Director LaM, Museum of Villeneuve d’Ascq, France
Ann Demeester, Director Frans Hals Museum, Haarlem
Corinne Diserens, Curator, France/Belgium
Paul Dujardin, CEO Bozar, Center of Fine Arts, Brussels
Willem Elias, Professor Emeritus, VUB University Brussels
Bracha Ettinger, Artist, Israel
Ann Gallagher, Director of Collections, British Art, Tate, London
Nikolaus Gansterer, Artist, Vienna
Annemie Ghekiere, Belgium
Simryn Gill, Artist, Malaysia/Australia
Gabriel Gorodetsky, Professor, Quondam Fellow, All Souls College, Oxford
Monika Grzymala, Artist, Poland/Germany
Hélène Guénin, Director MAMAC, Nice, France
Mona Hatoum, Artist, Palestina/UK
Anton & Annick Herbert, Herbert Foundation, Ghent
Stefan Hertmans, Writer, Belgium
Craigie Horsfield, Artist, London
Ruth Herz, Former Judge at the Court of Cologne, Visiting Professor Birkbeck, University of London, author of ‘The Art of Justice’
Antony Hudek, Cultural Studies, KASK, Ghent
Cristina Iglesias, Artist, Spain
Ann Veronica Janssens, Artist, Belgium
Béatrice Josse, Director Magasin des Horizons, Centre national d’arts et de cultures, Grenoble Ricardo Lanzarini, Artist, Uruguay
Elizabeth Ann Macgregor OBE, Director Museum of Contemporary Art, Sydney, Australia
Anna Maria Maiolino, Artist, Brazil
Bartomeu Mari, Director National Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art, Seoul, Korea
Ine Mariën, Executive Advisor in Reputation & Stakeholder Management Brussels, Guest Lecturer Ghent University, Belgium
Brian Massumi, Philosopher & Social Theorist, Professor Communication Department, University of Montreal, Canada
Erin Manning, Professor Faculty of Fine Art, Concordia University, Montreal, Canada
Catherine Mayeur, Art Historian and Art Critic, Belgium
Alan Michelson, Mohawk artist, USA
Anna Morochnik, Former Exhibition Director of Moscow Biennale of Contemporary Art, co-founder of SPASIBO studio
Avis Newman, Artist, UK
Everlyn Nicodemus, Artist, Writer and Art Historian, Tanzania/UK
Emma Nicolson, Director, ATLAS Arts & Guest Curator, Taigh Chearsabhagh, UK
Valerie Oleynik, Former Project Director of Moscow Biennale of Contemporary Art, co-founder of SPASIBO studio
Alexandra Paperno, Artist, Russia
Giuseppe Penone, Artist, Italy
Griselda Pollock, Professor of Social & Critical Histories of Art, Director, Centre for Cultural Analysis, Theory & History (CentreCATH), School of Fine Art, History of Art & Cultural Studies (FAHACS), University of Leeds, UK
Lucien Posman, Composer, Founder and honorary Chairman of ComAV, The Flanders Composers Archipelago, Member of the Royal Academy for Science and the Arts of Belgium
Laurence Rassel, Director ERG, Brussels
Gerda Steiner and Jörg Lenzlinger, Artists, Switzerland
Joëlle Tuerlinckx, Artist, Belgium
Luc Tuymans, Artist, Belgium
Paul Vanden Broeck, Former Curator Royal Museum of Fine Arts, Antwerp
Barbara Vanderlinden, Art critic, Editor and Curator, Brussels
Ria Verhaeghe, Artist, Belgium
Bart Verschaffel, Professor Architecture and Urban Planning, Ghent University, Belgium Cecilia Vicuna, Artist, Chile/USA
Mark Wigley, Professor and Dean Emeritus, Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation, Columbia University, New York
Marie Zolamian, Artist, Belgium


Marie-Claude Béaud, Director Nouveau Musee National de Monaco
Andrea Biaconi, Artist, Italy
Chris Dercon, former Director Tate Modern, London
Karin Hanssen, Artist, Belgium
Stella Lohaus, Galerist, Antwerp
Enrico Lunghi, former General Director, Mudam Luxembourg
Anthony Parton, Professor of Art History, Durham University, UK
Paul Robbrecht, Architect, Belgium
Alia Syed, Artist, UK
Maria Valyaeva, former Senior Curator, Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow
Lissa Wolsak, Poet, USA/Canada

See, Catherine de Zegher on wikipedia.

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CHAGALL, LISSITZKY, MALEVITCH… The Russian Avant-Garde in Vitebsk (1918-1922)

Musée national d’Art moderne, Centre Pompidou, Paris
28 March – 16 July 2018

Blows to the Russian Avant-Garde are not new. The recent exhibition at the Centre Pompidou in Paris, having little to do with Vitebsk, is a striking example. Only the title gives it away.

Chagall, Lissitzky, Malevich, and in tiny letters at the bottom of the poster and on the catalogue, “Vitebsk” can hardly be seen.

Even if the organisers of the exhibition did not want to portray the scope of the creativity of the school of Vitebsk, the considerable importance of the teaching disseminated by the above-named teachers must be remembered. They were a new generation of artists who unfortunately were eliminated by a new repressive regime.

Although it is a pleasure to see a few great paintings by Chagall, a few rather sad Lissitzky’s, and a profusion of Malevich’s Architektons, the work of the students has been reduced to but a small handful. Was it a decree from Russian museums that determined the choice of work, cowardice on behalf of the organisers, or just incompetence?

The works exist, however, for several private galleries such as Annely Juda in London, Gmurzynska in Cologne (at the time), Jean Chauvelin in Paris have exhibited many works by the students of Malevich over the 1990s. So why are there all these intentional omissions?

The exhibition of Vitebsk is yet to be done.

InCoRM Member, Paris

26 June 2018

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InCoRM is aware of two articles that appeared on 15 January 2018 on the websites of and the Art Newspaper regarding the Toporovsky collection of Russian Avant-Garde works, now on exhibition at the Museum voor Schone Kunsten in Ghent, Belgium. InCoRM will be visiting this collection in the near future to view the works and to consult the supporting documents. Following this it will publish their findings on this website at FORUM.


Toporovsky Collection at Ghent

Having been maligned by a press in London and Belgium, the Russian Avant-Garde works exhibited at the Museum of Fine Arts in Ghent were temporarily withdrawn from view in late January, pending consideration by a commission appointed by the Flemish Minister of Culture, Sven Gatz.

InCoRM has been informed that the works were placed in the museum’s reserves so that they could be studied in an atmosphere of calm, and without the incursion of unauthorised photographic practices by certain journalists.

InCoRM was thus unable to view the exhibition and looks forward to visiting it once it is rehung in order to see the works and consult the documentation held by the collector and made available by the museum. This is solely in the interests of research, because as an organisation, InCoRM does not do, and never has done, expertises on works of art. Its concerns are devoted exclusively to knowledge of the Russian Avant-Garde.

Admin. 7 February 2018


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Provenance is NOT Authentication

And this is proven by lists submitted by Russian museums for the Royal Academy exhibition in London, REVOLUTION (Feb-April 2017; ). Of 107 works (not including photographic prints or coupons), the ownership of a work between its date of execution and acquisition by a museum is incomplete in 43 provenances and complete in 64 cases.

If one believes internet and media gossip that pretends that complete provenance is necessary to prove absolute authenticity, then the conclusion would be that over 40% of

works belonging to Russian museums would be of dubious authenticity. There is no reason to think that this is the case, however. So the fallacious claim casts uncertainty on genuine museum holdings and spreads nasty rumours.

Provenance is a record of ownership, and it is this ownership that may be incomplete due to circumstances so poignant in Russia from the First World War to the end of the Second World War. Between 1914 and 1945 there was not only world war but revolution and civil war, the imposition of a totalitarian society and the complete upheaval and restructuring of social institutions. Millions died, emigrated, were displaced.

Russian Avant-Garde art was subject to loss, with the whereabouts of works obscured and unrecorded. So tracing owners is a task as difficult for individual works as for those held by the Russian museums themselves – by their own admission, sometimes impossible. As they state: “Note that this object has an incomplete provenance for the years 1933-1945. Extensive research has been carried out in order to fill the gaps, but no further information has been found.”

And due to Stalin’s decrees against modernist trends, these spread dates can be extended from 1932 to the fall of the Soviet regime in 1991 when art that had been illegal suddenly became the pride of Russian museums and sought after by collectors. This had been an art deprived of ownership, languishing in abandoned warehouses, and it then was acquired by new owners who saved it after 60 years in obscurity.

As with works in Russian museums, there may be gaps in ownership, but since the authenticity of works is independent of owners, of provenance, this poses no particular problem. The work exists, so its authenticity is to be found within itself by thorough investigation and expert analyses by scientists and art historians.

Admin. 6 March 2017



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